facts about education in indonesia

A central goal of the national education system is not merely to impart secular wisdom about the world but also to instruct children in the principles of participation in the modern nation-state, its bureaucracies, and its moral and ideological foundations. Revised history textbooks were introduced in 2004. It includes credentials called Sarjana at the undergraduate level (Sarjana Strata 1 – S1), graduate level (Sarjana Strata Dua – S2, commonly called Magister), and doctoral level (Sarjana Strata 3 – S3, commonly called Doktor). The vast majority of Indonesian higher education institutions (HEIs) are smaller private providers of lesser quality, while admission into public universities is highly competitive. Academies are dedicated to vocational education at the undergraduate level and can be public or private. The primary phase follows on after optional pre-school playgroups that may commence in a child’s third … Like its secondary school system, Indonesia’s higher education system is binary in nature. Indonesia is one of Australia's closest neighbours. Requirements at most private institutions are typically less strenuous than at public HEIs. It is also the largest archipelago on the globe. However, national exams have been deprioritized in recent years, and since 2015 no longer make up the mandatory core assessment criterion. Education in Indonesia is compulsory and provided free of charge at public schools from grades one to nine (six years of elementary education and three years of junior secondary education). These quality considerations notwithstanding, enrollments in private institutions at the elementary level increased from 16 percent to 22 percent between 2004 and 2017. Text Sources: New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, Times of London, Lonely Planet Guides, Library of Congress, Compton’s Encyclopedia, The Guardian, National Geographic, Smithsonian magazine, The New Yorker, Time, Newsweek, Reuters, AP, AFP, Wall Street Journal, The Atlantic Monthly, The Economist, Global Viewpoint (Christian Science Monitor), Foreign Policy, Wikipedia, BBC, CNN, and various books, websites and other publications. Only 40,737 students were enrolled in PhD programs throughout Indonesia in 2017. Spending on tertiary education and research is particularly low with the MHRT receiving only 9 percent of all education allocations in 2018. Indonesia’s higher education degree structure is defined in a logical numerical hierarchy. C. May/Shostal Associates. The teaching style prioritizes rote memorization; promotion and graduation were, until recently, largely based on external national examinations (ujian nasional, or UN), typically in a multiple-choice format at the end of each school year. The Dutch established Nood Universiteit (Emergency University) in Jakarta in 1946, and the following year changed its name to Universiteit van Indonesië (UVI), or University of Indonesia. The majority (60 percent) of Indonesian students pursue undergraduate degrees, while 14 percent enroll at the graduate level, 3 percent at the non-degree level, and 8 percent participated in OPT. Also, the strong migrant networks that have developed over decades of large-scale migration may provide a reassuring cultural environment for Indonesian students. Children age six and older learned by rote its five principles—belief in one God, humanitarianism, national unity, democracy, and social justice—and were instructed daily to apply the meanings of this key national symbol to their lives. Despite these difficulties, most institutions of higher education receive large numbers of applications; in state institutions, less than one in four applications was accepted in 2004; in private institutions, the acceptance rate was nearly two out of three. It lasts three years (grades 10 to 12) and is offered in different specialization streams in the general academic track. Training in medical specialties takes another three to five years, depending on the specialty, and concludes with the award of a Spesialis diploma. Higher education offered in 2,975 colleges, universities, and other tertiary institutions, with more than 4.2 million students. However, since the end of the Suharto regime and the subsequent democratization of Indonesia, various functions of government have been decentralized and transferred to locally elected district governments. In many remote areas of the Outer Islands, in particular, there is a severe shortage of qualified teachers, and some villages have school buildings but no teachers, books, or supplies. But in each case, “the central government, in this case the Ministry of Education, just lets it happen.” ^+^, “Jilbab, which has become so ubiquitous in Indonesia, became popular only in the post-Suharto years. Most religious schools emphasize Islamic values and thought. This astonishing economic rise is partially based on demographic trends that will increase the country’s population to about 321 million. There also are important regional universities in Sulawesi Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Jawa Barat, and Papua. It’s currently planned that students will also earn a series of formal vocational training certificates during the course of their studies, so that graduates and school dropouts alike can obtain qualifications of greater value in the labor market. With many prestigious and highly ranked universities located in other Asian countries nearby, regional students looking for high-quality overseas education are unlikely to turn to Indonesia. Indonesian mass education, with a different philosophy, has had the effect of producing more graduates than there are jobs available, even in strong economic times. In 2013, Indonesia ranked last in a landmark education report that measured literacy, test results, graduation rates and other key benchmarks in 50 nations. Welcome to Go Indonesia! The major academic degree programs are the sarjana (literally “scholar,” roughly corresponding to a bachelor’s degree) and the pasca sarjana (master’s or doctoral degree). S1 undergraduate programs in standard academic disciplines usually last four years (eight semesters) after upper-secondary school. Advanced schools or schools of higher learning are the most common form of Indonesian HEI. While Indonesia is formally a centralized “unitary republic,” it is effectively a quasi-federal state that concedes a considerable degree of autonomy to provinces like Aceh (Sumatra), the capital region of Jakarta (Java), the special region of Yogyakarta (Java), Papua, and West Papua. Recent economic growth rates have been relatively low compared with growth rates before the 1997 Asian financial crisis, but GDP has nevertheless increased steadily by more than 5 percent for most of the past eight years. It’s now mandatory for all HEIs to have their programs accredited. International student enrollment dropped in the wake of U.S. government-imposed visa restrictions and the globally unpopular 2003 Iraq war. In 2013, BAN-PT had an estimated backlog of 20 percent in accreditation decisions, causing the organization to adopt “emergency measures” to “give institutions temporary accreditation at “C” level (the pass level) without any accreditation process.” Among accredited programs, public institutions tend to achieve far better results: While 40.6 of accredited programs at public HEIs received a rating of “A” in 2013, only 6.4 percent of programs at private institutions did. The curriculum comprises basic subjects like religious education, national philosophy and civics, Indonesian, mathematics, science, social science, arts, and physical education. The top three destination countries for Indonesian degree-seeking students enrolled overseas are Australia, the U.S., and Malaysia. Unrest has occurred among masses of job applicants who seek to remain in cities but do not find positions commensurate with their view of themselves as graduates. “This shows that the majority is always right, while the minority has to adapt.” [Source: Yenni Kwok, New York Times, June 15, 2014 ^+^], “Educators like Ms. Supolo have urged the Education Ministry to take action against the spread of Islamic uniforms and other religious distinctions. How well the U.S. can compete with Australia, Malaysia, and, most recently, China in attracting Indonesian students remains to be seen. These schools are required to incorporate parts of the national curriculum, namely Indonesian culture and language, while still teaching foreign curricula. The national curriculum largely includes the same subjects as in elementary education, but also adds additional science classes in biology, chemistry, or physics; social science subjects like world history; and English. Entry is based on an S2 degree with high grades, but top students may also be allowed to enter on the basis of an S1 undergraduate degree, in which case they may have to complete additional course work. In public schools, emphasis on moral and civil studies under the rubric of Pancasila was altered after the end of the New Order. Government funding struggled to keep up with rising costs during this period, but by 2002, according to the World Bank, only 2 percent of those between the ages of 15 and 24 could not read, and by 2009, the adult literacy rate was 90.4 percent. Education spending during the Suharto years was extremely meager, hovering around 1 percent of GDP or less throughout much of the 1990s. There’s also a degree called Sarjana Kedoktoren earned after four or five years, but this credential does not qualify physicians to practice as such without additional study. While institutions admit a number of top students directly based on their high school records (an admissions process called Seleksi Nasional Masuk Perguruan Tinggi Negeri—SNMPTN), a more common pathway is the allocation of students to HEIs based on a centralized, joint entrance examination conducted under the purview of the MHRT—a process referred to as Seleksi Bersama Masuk Perguruan Tinggi Negeri (SBMPTN). Like Australia, Malaysia is a popular choice for mobile Indonesian students because of its geographic proximity. Students in religious schools specialize in religious subjects. Enrollments at upper-secondary private schools, on the other hand, decreased from 54 to 46 percent over the same time span, according to UIS data. ^+^, “But as the government loosens up, allowing students and teachers to wear the head veil — should they choose to do so — has become a mark of religious difference even within schools. Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous country (behind China, India, and the United States). That was one of the main reasons for President Yudhoyono’s triumphant re-election in 2009. Educational quality is a pressing concern in Indonesian higher education. [Source: Library of Congress *], The character of Indonesia’s education system reflects the country’s diverse religious heritage, its struggle for a national identity, and the challenge of resource allocation in a poor but developing archipelagic nation with a population that is young (median age 27.6 years) and growing (at an estimated annual rate of about 1.1 percent) in 2009. There are several different types of HEIs, including universities, institutes, advanced schools, academies, polytechnics, and community academies. They substituted the guidelines to “compare various opinions” for the “Communist Party” in the section related to the September 1965 attempted coup. According to the International Study Center by Boston College in 2001 the archipelago ranked 34th in 38 countries in math ability among 8th grade and 32nd in science ability. Overall, there are 34 provinces which are further subdivided into thousands of districts, subdistricts, cities, and more than 75,000 villages. The national medical curriculum includes an initial 3.5-year period of pre-clinical studies, followed by a two-year clinical phase and a mandatory one-year clinical internship after graduation. Education expenditures: 2.8 percent of GDP (2011), country comparison to the world: 143, Literacy (age 15 and over can read and write): total population: 92.8 percent; male: 95.6 percent; female: 90.1 percent (2011 est.). Religion Is Diverse. In one school in eastern Jakarta, Muslim students spend 15 to 20 minutes reading the Koran every morning, guided through a public address system, said a teacher at the school, speaking on condition that neither she nor the school be identified, for fear of professional repercussions. However, public education spending as a percentage of GDP has stagnated over the past decade and remains well below recommended levels for emerging economies (at 3.6 percent of GDP in 2015). However, legislation from 2005 made it mandatory for teachers to have a four-year university degree (Sarjana Pendidikan) or a Diploma 4 in education order to qualify for public professional teacher allowances. Textbooks have traditionally been written to engender loyalty to the government and ruling ideology. To improve quality standards, the Indonesian government in the mid-1990s created a National Board for Higher Education Accreditation (Badan Akreditasi Nasioanal Perguruan Tinggi, or BAN-PT), an independent body under the MOE. In general, the U.S. higher education system is attractive to Indonesian students for several reasons. The government seeks to nurture “world-class universities,” and to incentivize HEIs to increase research output by rewarding top-rated institutions with special funding. Indonesia’s cultural and regional diversity is as vast as the number of its islands. Subscribe to WENR, and discover other tools and publications. Together, these three countries make up the study destinations of nearly 60 percent of all outbound Indonesian students. They are typically two years (four semesters) in length and involve 36 to 50 credit units, as well as the preparation of a thesis or completion of a graduation project. This article is written based on keynote presentation of the first author, Ali Nugraha, in the 2011 International Early Childhood Studies Conference: Current Issues in Early Childhood, 11-12 July 2011, in Indonesia University of Education (UPI), Bandung. [Source: everyculture.com **], The Republic of Indonesia Institute for Higher Education (BPTRI) was founded in Jakarta shortly after independence was declared in 1945. *, Participants in Indonesia Mengajar, a programme funded by private corporations and run by prominent university educator Anies Baswedan, are given army survival training before being deployed. As an expat, you might choose to put your child into the state system, or look for a suitable private or international school. Compared with how the school system is administered, higher education is generally more centrally controlled. [Source: everyculture.com ], Today many Indonesians have earned advanced degrees abroad and most have returned to serve their country. And out half of those who finish middle school graduate from high school. While Islamic education was long regarded as second rate, the rise of Islamic conservatism in Indonesia has led to an increase in Islamic education in public school curricula in recent years. In Indonesia educations begins with six years of elementary school ( sekolah dasar, SD) followed by three years of middle school ( sekolah menengah pertama, SMP) followed by three years of high school ( sekolah menengah atas, SMA). Despite being the world’s fourth-largest country in terms of population, Indonesia was only the 22nd-largest sender of international students worldwide in 2017, making up less than 1 percent of the more than 5 million students studying abroad that year. Most HEIs have only very limited autonomy. Unlike state universities, private institutions have budgets that are almost entirely tuition-driven. The country’s constitution also states that education in the country is offered in 2 types, non … During 1997–98, the financial crisis affected the poorest families the most, resulting in their selectively cutting back on their education expenditures. Geography of Indonesia. Institutions like the University of Indonesia offer medical training programs in which students earn a Sarjana after eight semesters and the Dokter after another four semesters of clinical studies. Meanwhile, funding for the Indonesia Endowment Fund for Education, a governmental scholarship program for graduate students studying both domestically and abroad, has more than doubled between 2016 and 2017, from USD$105 million to USD$225 million. That said, this ratio remains far from the government’s goal of making senior secondary education universal for all Indonesian youth. The admissions test includes general subjects (mathematics, Indonesian, English), as well as subjects related to the intended area of concentration (for example, science subjects for STEM fields). From the late 1970s through the l990s, private schools and universities increased in number and quality and served diverse students (including Chinese Indonesians who were not accepted at government universities). This unfulfilled demand is likely to yield increases in tertiary enrollment rates in the long term, current unemployment rates among university graduates notwithstanding. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond 'fair use', you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. Indonesia is the world's most populous Islamic nation; a majority are Sunnis. However, about 30 percent of lecturers, particularly at private institutions, still don’t meet this requirement. 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